关键词：适应性 认知能力 内生权威
Adaptation, Cognitive Ability and Endogenous Authority
Abstract: What form of organization will the organization choose for adapting to the changing environment? It is a problem of governance in the eyes of Williamson (1985). Followed this view, this paper attempts to set up a model to study the cognitive abilities of the members of the organization how to affect the endogenous authority. Our main findings: if the difference of cognitive ability between members in organization is large enough, the hierarchy with authority is the equilibrium organizational structure, and the member with larger cognitive abilities will obtain the authority and become the leader. If the difference of cognitive ability between members is small enough, the organizational structure of equality will be the equilibrium. As the equilibrium, the equality organization may not be efficient. If the hierarchy is the unique Nash equilibrium, it holds efficiency as well.
Keywords: Adaptation Cognitive Ability Endogenous Authority
JEL Classification: D23 D82 L22
关键词：人口统计特征 现金支付 银行卡支付 外部选择 银行卡使用
Cash or Cards? How do Demographics Affect the Usage Decision for Payment Cards with an Outside Alternative?
Abstract: Cash as an outside alternative must be taken into consideration when it comes to investigating the usage decision for bankcards. Based on a unique dataset provided by the China Household Finance Survey 2011, this paper takes cash as an alternative into consideration and employs Multinomial Logit Model to investigate the impact of demographics on the choice among offline payment Instruments. Results show that the risk aversion effect, life cycle effect, income class effect and wealth effect are significant once consumers make payment decisions in observation period. Those who are well educated young female with upper-middle income and high travelling expenditure but without household cars prefer to pay by cards rather than by cash. Regardless of cash or cards, the marginal magnitude of income class on the inclination of payment tools ranks first while those of education and age rank last respectively. Notably, the marginal magnitude of risk aversion on the inclination of cards dominates that on cash while the marginal magnitudes of other demographic variables reverse. In the presence of an outside alternative, heterogeneity arises when consumers make their decision for cards usage. Specifically, the effects of demographics on cards usage vary with regions, residential types as well as status within family. The conclusions above contribute to the choice of payment tools for consumers and are helpful for issuing banks to innovate marketing plans.
Keywords: Demographics Payment by Cash Payment by Cards Outside Alternative Usage of Cards
JEL Classification：L11 L22 L40
关键词：网络组织 大众生产 网络治理 互联网产业
Research on the Emergency and Governance System of Peer Production
Abstract: Peer Production is a new organizational model in the sector of production of knowledge product under the technological environment of Web2.0. Linux, Wikipeida, Baidupeida are the knowledge product of this kind of model. Peer Production put forward one puzzle of theory of frim: How do the thousands of volunteers organize and complete the complex and difficult work without formal organizational structure, economic incentives and controlling of contract. The paper analyzed that the organizational model and governance system of peer production and supposed bazaar governance is a special governance model. The governance system of peer production is different with market and firm and can be regarded as one particular case of network governance.
Keywords: Network Organization Peer Production Network Governance Internet Industry
JEL Classification: D23 L22
李凯 司马林 刘馨阳
关键词：排他交易 买方势力 反垄断
Exclusive Dealing, his History and Development
—a Review Based on “Seller Power” and “Buyer Power”
Kai Li Lin Sima Xinyang Liu
Abstract: Based on ongoing theory of exclusive dealing and increasing concern on exclusion caused by growing buyer power in reality, the survey paper categorizes the typical researches following two traces of "buyer power" and "seller power" and then reviews them before commenting in accordance with the key issue in different researches. The paper finds out that compared with seller power, exclusive dealings from buyer power has more complicated effects and the power itself will exert important implications on equilibrium results. In the end, the paper casts aside new insights in the area of exclusive dealing and offers suggestion for policy making. The paper clarifies the trace and evolution of the exclusive dealing and presents a rather overall view of existing researches in terms of their contribution and weakness as well as raises a new perspective for future research.
Key Words: Exclusive Dealing Buyer Power Effect Anti-trust
JEL Classification: L11 L42 L81
关键词：产能过剩 资源软约束 环境硬约束 重复建设 僵尸企业 去产能
Resource Soft Constraints, Environmental Hard Constraints and Excess Capacity
Qili Xu Xinwei Nie
Abstract: An evolving formation mechanism on long term excess capacity in China was proposed under the general equilibrium system of monopoly competition: situation I: natural excess capacity was formed under no government intervention ® situation II: distorted excess capacity was formed under the soft constraints of resources ® situation III: distorted excess capacity was aggravated under the hard constraints of environment ® situation IV: cut capacity. In situation I of no government intervention, natural excess capacity was determined by both enterprise internal production cost and enterprise external product demand. Soft constraints of resources in situation II makes distorted excess capacity of the industry besides natural excess capacity: material resources soft constraints make distorted excess capacity of the entrance of new enterprises of repeated construction, human resources soft constraints make distorted excess capacity of the withdraw of zombie enterprise of having capacity but no output. Hard constraints of environment in situation III aggravated distortion of excess capacity: direct hard constraint on the environment make the withdraw of zombie enterprise of having capacity but no output once again and then increase distortion of the excess capacity, indirect hard constraint on the environment make the entrance of new enterprises of repeated construction and then increase distortion of the excess capacity. In situation IV of cutting capacity, based on the new fundamentals of both the soft constraints in resources and the hard constraints in environment, optimal enterprise number reduction and retention, optimal enterprise capacity reduction and retention, optimal industry production capacity reduction and retention should be used as a target for cutting capacity. This evolutionary system promotes the formation mechanism of excess capacity from local equilibrium analysis to general equilibrium analysis under the industrial organization SCP research paradigm; unlike the explanation of the mechanism of overcapacity in developed countries, this evolutionary system gives an evolutionary explanation of the long-term mechanism of excess capacity in the process of continuous improvement of institutional mechanisms of catching and surpassing strategies of developing economy, like China; and many views of excess capacity based on government failure are special cases of material resources soft constraints of the evolutionary system.
Keywords: Excess Capacity Resource Soft Constraints Environmental Hard Constraints Repeated Construction Zombie Enterprise Cut Capacity
JEL Classification: L10 D40 C60
关键词：财政分权 地方政府竞争 生态效率
Impact of Fiscal Decentralization and Local Government Competition on Eco-efficiency
——An Empirical Study Based on Spatial SDM Model
Guofeng Sun Chan Zhang
Abstract: Green development is the idea that our country adhere to for healthy and stable economic development for a long time. At present, the state of the environment is deteriorating; ecological environment problems have become a very prominent problem in the development of Chinese economy. This is closely related to China’s fiscal policy and the promotion mechanism of local government officials. This paper used super efficiency model and the data from 2002-2014 to calculate eco-efficiency, the sustainable development indicators. And then make use of the spatial SDM model to study the impact of fiscal decentralization and local government competition on eco efficiency. The empirical results show that in fiscal decentralization factors, local government excessive competition has a significant negative effect on regional eco-efficiency. Regional ecological efficiency is not only affected by the area of fiscal decentralization and local government competition, is also affected by the surrounding area and the eco-efficiency of the explanatory variables. Therefore, on the basis of the reform of the current financial system and the promotion mechanism of local government officials, give full play to the demonstration and spillover of foreign direct investment, accelerate inter-regional cooperation in the economic and environmental governance to achieve mutual benefit and win-win situation.
Keywords: Fiscal Decentralization Local Government Competition Eco-efficiency SDM Model
JEL Classification: H50 H11 Q57
关键词：企业异质性 一般贸易 加工贸易 技术升级
Heterogeneous Firms, Export Trade Pattern and Technology Upgrading
Abstract: Under the framework of heterogeneous firms' trade theory, this paper builds a theoretical model which can analyze how export trade patterns affect firms' technology upgrading by introducing the continuous endogenous firms' technology upgrading. The theoretical analysis shows the processing trade export is adverse to firms' technology upgrading compared to the general trade export . Applying China's firm-level data from 2000 to 2006, using the system GMM estimation method, the paper empirically analyzes the effect of export trade patterns on firms' technology upgrading. Empirical results show the level of technology upgrading of China's processing trade export firms is significantly lower than that of general trade export firms, and with the increase of the degree of processing trade, firms' technology upgrading will decrease. Meanwhile, further analysis shows export trade patterns only affect firms' technology upgrading of eastern coastal areas and foreign ownership. From the view of firms' technology upgrading, this paper provides a new perspective for understanding the development of processing trade again.
Keywords: Firm Heterogeneity Ordinary Trade Processing Trade Technology Upgrading
JEL Classification: F12 D20