关键词：产业竞争力 产业控制力 安全测评 Malmquist指数法 定性判别法
Study on the Evaluation Methods of Industry Security Level:
A Systematic Review and Normative Reconstruction
Abstract:There are some problems both existing in index system method and DEA method for evaluation of industry security level which resulting in difficulty to form a consensus and specification and mapping out its unclear and unscientific in understanding the basic concept and logic of industry security in academic circle. Research shows that it has generally brought a basic paradigm with characteristics of "core-periphery", "opening-protection" and "Competitive power-control force" in the evolution process of industrial security outlook. As industrial competitive power and industrial control force are the two basic elements of industrial security paradigm, it should to construct evaluation methods of industry security normatively from the two basic perspectives. Among them, the evaluation method of industry security based on industry competitive power should be constructed from the perspective of production efficiency and the relative competitive advantage by the Malmquist index method, and the evaluation method of industry security based on industry control force should be constructed from the perspective of control threshold of foreign capital in domestic industries by the method of qualitative identification.
Keywords：Industrial Competitive Power Industrial Control Force Security Evaluation Malmquist Index Method Qualitative Method
JEL Classification: L00 B41 C51
关键词：能源产业 环境规制 清洁生产
The Incentive Mechanism for Environmental Regulation on Cleaner Production of China’s Energy Industry：A Two-Stage Game Analysis
Abstract: The two-stage game analysis of incentive mechanism for environmental regulation on cleaner production of China’s energy industry stated that the incentive compatibility for environmental regulation on cleaner production of China’s energy industry existed stronger sufficient condition and weaker sufficient condition. The stronger sufficient condition included fiscal policies and financial policies of formal environmental regulation, informal environmental regulation and energy firms’ efficient labor, capital and technology inputs for environment protecting in the current period. The weaker sufficient condition was current effective mechanism design of pollution charge schedules or environmental protection tax rates of formal environmental regulation. Both sufficient conditions endogenously contained positive incentive mechanism and negative incentive mechanism for environmental regulation on cleaner production of China’s energy industry. Energy firms’ current pure standard pollution discharged behaviors would spontaneously induce to positive incentive mechanism, yet energy firms’ current substandard pollution discharged behaviors would spontaneously lead to negative incentive mechanism. When one of the two sufficient conditions was satisfied, the incentive mechanism for environmental regulation on cleaner production of China’s energy industry contained participation constraint and incentive compatibility, and representative energy firm’s current fixed dominant strategy was completely obeying the formal environmental regulation, thus it would fully realize the cleaner production in its energy products and attain the organic unity of individual rationality and collective rationality. However, when stronger sufficient condition and weaker sufficient condition were both failed, if government could objectively and accurately quantify the values and positive externality revenues of environment, cut down its formal environmental regulated costs in the current period, then government currently would still have positive incentive for practicing strict formal environmental regulation which could force representative energy firm to choose the strategy of completely obeying formal environmental regulation at the same period.
Keywords: Energy Industry Environmental Regulation Clean Production
JEL Classification: C72 L51 Q58
关键词：专利法 顺位规则 不当得利 损失利润 国家福利
Infringement Compensation Priority Rules of China’s Patent Law ：An Economic perspective
Jianhua Wang Shuangyan Ma
Abstract:Debates have continued about infringement compensation priority rules of china’s patent law in the scope of law science. Based on the economic perspectives, this paper discusses the impact of two different liability rules on innovation activities and national welfare. The results show that the national welfare under the rules of unjust enrichment is always less than or equal to the lost profit. In other words, lost profit rule is consistent with national welfare standard. Unless the intellectual property protection is very strong, otherwise the optimum choice to patent holder is lost profit. Those conclusions show that the relevant provisions of China’s patent law to infringement compensation priority rules are economically reasonable.
Keywords: Patent Law Priority Rules Unjust Enrichment Lost Profit National Welfare
JEL Classification: O30 L10 D80 K40
关键词：产能约束 管输约束 第三方准入
Production Congestion, Transportation Congestion and Third Party Access to Natural Gas Pipeline Network: Simulation Analysis Based on MCP Model
Abstract:This paper applies a third party access model based on multiple complementarity problem (MCP) for gas pipeline network where an independent system operator leads to flow optimization and transfers the congestion rent to former integrated gas company to compensate its actual loss control of pipeline operation. Different production and transportation congestion conditions are tested for its feasibility with Pareto improvement. The result shows feasible third party access model only happens where low (high) production congestion condition combined with high (low) transmission congestion condition. Under the former situation, congestion rent should be compensated to the integrated gas company while under the latter, both integrated gas company and access company should be compensated.
Keywords:Production Capacity Constraint Transmission Capacity Constraint Third Party Access
JEL Classification: L13 P28 C63
关键词：寡头市场 三级价格歧视 进入阻止 反垄断
Third-degree Price Discrimination under Oligopoly Market
Yaojia Tang Cui Lv
Abstract: It is still not clear whether third-degree price discrimination in oligopoly will become the strategic tool of entry deterrence. Based on fixed entry costs and asymmetric competition incumbents-entrants model and considering the impact of government policy, we analysis the entry deterrence effect of third-degree price discrimination in oligopoly. The result shows that third-degree price discrimination indeed become a strategic tool which can prevent the entry of competitors under some condition. Exclusive third-degree price discrimination should be prohibit by antitrust laws. Antitrust test of exclusive price discrimination properly should take full account of the level of fixed costs of market entry, the relative size between strong sub-market and weak sub-markets, as well as the degree of product substitution.
Keywords: Oligopoly Market Third-degree Price Discrimination Entry Deterrence Antitrust
JEL Classification: O17 R58 H11
关键词：非正规就业 非正规部门 新凯恩斯主义 劳动力市场 货币政策
Informal Employment, Labor Mobility and Monetary Policy
Abstract:This paper considers a multi-sector new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with informal employment, and investigates labor market dynamics and monetary policy when informal employment is significantly exist. We estimate the multi-sector model with Bayesian methods, and compare this model with one- sector model. The result of model comparison tells that, multi-sector model was supported overwhelmingly by the data. The impulse response function shows that, employment, new hires and output of different sector response differently when the same shocks hit the economy. It means that the multi-sector model may be reasonable. The result of sensitivity analysis argues that, perfect risk sharing will affect the volatilities and durations of model variables. Further, the result of monetary analysis believes that, the social welfare loss caused by Evans rule that react to unemployment is the least one, it means that when the condition of labor market become seriously, the monetary authority may use this rule to alleviate unemployment , and, the social welfare loss may quantitative smallest. And, the policy reacts to the hiring cost of formal employment may helpful for the improvement of labor market, especially when the government promotes the reform of social security system in formal sector.
Keywords:Informal Employment Informal Sector New Keynesian Labor Market Monetary Policy
JEL Classification: E24 E32 E52
关键词：地方政府角色 最低质量标准规制 行为逻辑社会福利水平
Local Government Types , Government and Enterprise’s Behavior Logic and The Social Welfare Effect of Minimum Quality Standards Regulation
Xujin Pu Weimin He
Abstract: We construct an analysis framework consisting of the central government, a local government, a representative firm, and consumers. This study analyzes how the local government’s enforcement, the firm’s compliance, and their interaction influence the effectiveness of regulation after the central government has established Minimum Quality Standards policies. We construct three scenarios: perfect enforcement, imperfect enforcement, and collusion. We show that when the local government enforces the regulation imperfectly, the firm’s utility and the local government’s utility are higher, while the degree of the firm’s compliance, consumers’ utility and the level of social welfare are lower. In the case in which there is collusion between the local government and the firm, the firm’s utility and the local government’s utility are the highest, and the degree of the firm’s compliance, consumers’ utility, and the level of social welfare are the lowest among the three scenarios. This study proves that the behavior of governments and firms play a vital role in the effectiveness of Minimum Quality Standards regulations.
Keywords: Local Government Types Minimum Quality Standards Regulation Behavior Logic Social Welfare
JEL Classification: D21 L12 L15
关键词：通道费理论 效率促进派 市场势力派 市场环境
Slotting Allowances, their History and Development——a Survey based on Schools of “Efficiency Improvement” and “Exercise of Market Power”
Kai Li Xinyang Liu
Abstract:This paper addresses slotting allowance theory, clarifying its genesis and categorizing recent research. All typical theories concerning slotting allowances can be divided into two schools of thought, “Efficiency Improvement” and “Exercise of Market Power”. This paper puts forwards a new perspective, namely an understanding of slotting allowances using both of these countervailing effects. These two effects, Efficiency Improvement and Exercise of Market Power, coexist. Which one is dominant depends on several comprehensive factors influencing a given market. We provide a new perspective for future research. We examine the sequence and evolution of the theory of slotting allowances so as to generalize the existing work which has been based on both qualitative and quantitative methods. In addition, the new perspective raised by this study will shed new light on the deeper and wider exploration of related theories.
Keywords:Slotting Allowances Efficiency Improvement Exercise of Market Power Market Characters
JEL Classification: L11 L42 L81
关键词：批发组织 生存依据 渠道变革 动态演化
Overseas Study on Revolution of Wholesaling Organization
Lijuan Xie Xiaoxue Li
Abstract:The revolution of wholesaling organization has been a controversial research topic in the field of applied economics. As information and logistic technology progressing and flourishing, “disintermediation” and “reintermediation” of wholesaling organization has become an issue of concern. This paper reviews the former research achievement of the wholesaling organization, focuses on the specific literature on the wholesalers, and meanwhile explores the revolutionary clue of wholesaling organization based on the classic study of the intermediate business. The result of research shows that despite of the prevalent prospective of the wholesaler’s demise in the theoretic field, what appears to be occurring is that wholesaler organization plays an important role in the modern distribution channel, which is supported by reality and empirical analysis. While conventional wholesalers have advantages of economies of scale, economies of scope and specialization, under the background of supply chain management business context, the wholesalers have developed a series of new specialization advantages on the basis of inheriting the conventional advantages, and play a distinguish role in the international trade area. Literature review in this paper will help to reveal the revolution of wholesaling organization, and provides inspiration for the role transition and the future development of the modern wholesaling organization.
Key words: Wholesaling Organization Existence Basis Channel Change Dynamic Revolution
JEL Classification: F02 L81 O14