关键词：电子商务 默契合谋 产品差异 市场透明
Price Comparison, Product Differentiation and Tacit Collusion in B2C Market
Zhengchi Liu Mingyong Lai
Abstract： Price comparison apps collect dispersed price information together and increase market transparency on the consumer side, which greatly influence oligarch retailers’ cooperation and competition in B2C market. This paper, based on the condition of product differentiation, proposes a Hotelling duopoly model of single-period competition and multi-period collusion. The pure strategy, mixed strategy and trigger strategy Nash equilibriums of the model are analyzed, by which the effects on tacit collusion of price comparison apps are investigated. Two propositions are proposed: Firstly, in the differentiated market to a certain extent, the tacit collusion becomes harder to sustain with the widespread use of price comparison apps by online consumers. Secondly, in the limiting homogeneous market, the effects vanish. Here the use of price comparison apps does not affect the possibilities for tacit collusion. This research provides a rational economic explanation for the tendency of high homogeneity of products in the B2C market.
Keywords：E-commerce Tacit Collusion Product Differentiation Market Transparency
JEL Classification: L11 L12 C72
杨华磊 周晓波 何凌云
关键词：经济分布 人口分布 协调性 收入差距
Comparative Study on the Coordination of Inter-Provincial Economic and Population Distribution Between China and USA
Hualei Yang Xiaobo Zhou Lingyun He
Abstract: In the last 10 years, Chinese coordination of population distribution and the economic distribution is lower than that of USA in the state.In short, the rich provinces in china have relatively less population; poor province in china which have more population; on the contrary, the rich provinces in American have relatively more population; poor province in American which have less population。In China ,this means that the provincial income gap which is greater than American.But in the inter-provincial ,the harmony of economic distribution and population distribution of China is enhanced, that of USA is weakening, which means the harmony of economic distribution and population distribution is likely to shock the increase, rather than the so-called first decreased and then increased.Under the background of China economic transformation, Only,we choose to the combination of increasing population agglomeration in rich provinces and economic agglomeration in poor provinces, we can achieve the double goals of economic development and regional gap narrowing;After the industrial upgrading of the developed provinces ,because of the industrial structure, rich provinces unable to absorb more population,The role of population migration will gradually reduce in reducing regional disparities and promoting economic development ,On the contrary, by adjusting the economic distribution to narrow the regional gap and promote the economy will be more and more important .Finally, in the background of industrial transformation, Should we reflect on policy that the more richer chinese provinces, the more strict system of household registration,is it reasonable?
Keywords:Economy Distribution Population Distribution Coordination Income Gap
JEL Classification:H770 J110 O150
关键词：公私合作关系 交通运输 公共领域 民间资本
The Establishment and Implementation of Public-Private Partnership
——Based on Research of Private Investment in Transport Industry
Chaohe Rong Jinjing Li
Abstract: It is an institutional revolution that the provision of public infrastructure and service transforms from total government arrangement to public-private provision, and even current private priority. This requires forming a new social consensus and making significant legal adjustment. The article points out that although there seems no more policy barrier for private capital’s access to infrastructure, the actual progress is far from satisfactory. The disadvantages of traditional government investment have been largely exposed and there is an urgent need to create conditions for the market allocation of public resources. The analysis shows that government paradox and industrial administrative monopoly lead to private capital’s incapacity to cooperate with state owned economy. It is necessary to establish public-private partnership in the forms of outsourcing, BTO and BOT etc. and further adjust structure and relationship of state and private economy. It is argued that public-private partnership is an important form to realize mixed economy in public domain. The control and influence of state owned economy should be transformed to and mainly reflect in the guidance and regulation with policy, law, process and contract instead of direct investment and equity. The international comparison confirms that the long-term and firm public-private partnership is the necessary condition of government project procurement. To establish effective public-private partnership, top level design as well as reasonable process should be pushed on simultaneously under the social ecology and environment in favor of non-state owned economy.
Keywords:Public-Private Partnership Transport Industry Public Domain Private Capital
JEL Classification: H54 L32 L91 P41
张林军 李明志 齐良书
关键词：医药分离 激励机制 专业分工
An Economic Critique of Separating Drug Prescription and Dispensing: Theory and Practice
Linjun Zhang Mingzhi Li Liangshu Qi
Abstract: As an important procedure of the ongoing medical and health system reform, separating drug prescription and dispensing (SPD) is a hot topic of public concern in China. In this article, we summarize in detail the theories and experiences related to SPD. According to industrial organization theory, SPD helps to correct the incentive mechanism for doctors, to promote the efficiency of specialization, and to break the monopoly of hospitals. However, it also has limitations, or even serious negative effects in some circumstances. Empirical examinations show that the actual effects are not always positive. In practice, the lessons of Korea, Japan and Taiwan in their process of implementing SPD are worthy for China’s policy makers to learn carefully.
Keywords:Separation of Drug Prescription and Dispensing Incentive Mechanism Division of Labor
JEL Classification Numbers: I11 I18 L10
余泳泽 刘 冉
关键词：产业结构升级 产业升级路径 产业升级机制
A Review of the Problems, Mechanism and Path of Industrial Structure Upgrading
Yongze Yu Ran Liu
Abstract: China's industrial structure upgrading happens slowly. Finding an effective mechanism for the industrial structure has become an urgent problem to be solved. This paper, based on industrial structure upgrading recent characters, sums up problems and deep reasons in China's industrial structure, and puts forward five path mechanisms to promote industrial structure--system environment, supply mechanism, demand mechanism, technology driven, and open mode. Future research should pay more attention to the regional difference in industrial structure upgrading mechanism of our country, and strengthen the exploration of the path to upgrade service industry.
Keywords: Industrial Structure Upgrading Industrial Upgrading Path Industrial Upgrading Mechanism
JEL Classification: L16 O14
李凯 刘智慧 苏慧清
关键词：纵向约束 买方抗衡势力 产品创新 水床效应
Countervailing Power and Upstream Product Innovation Incentive
Kai Li Zhihui Liu Huiqing Su
Abstract: We build a three stage dynamic game model to study the upstream product innovation incentive mechanism under the condition of non-cooperation and the existing of countervailing power. The results show that, when the retailer countervailing power is weak, the existing of countervailing power can promote the upstream to select product innovation, when the retailer countervailing power is strong, the existing of countervailing power can restrain the upstream to select product innovation; and the countervailing power reduces the equilibrium prices of two kinds of products, as well as increases the demand. In addition, the consumer utility and social welfare are both increasing with the countervailing power. Finally, we proved that the existing of “waterbed effect” need some conditions.
Keywords: Vertical Restriction Countervailing Power Product Innovation Waterbed Effect
JEL Classification: L11 L22
关键词：动态外部性 空间面板VAR 产业异质性
Dynamic Externality，Industry Heterogeneity and Synchronized Regional Industry Development
Abstract: Dynamic externally is interrelated to industry TFP growth. Based on spatial panel VAR model, spatial panel granger causality and dynamic spatial panel quantile regression methods. This paper probe the Marshall, Jacbos and Porter externality effects on TFP growth for different industry of three dimension panel datasets in 2003-2011. The empirical results are as follows: the effect of externally on industry TFP growth is heterogeneous and nonlinear. There are bidirectional granger causality relationship between Marshall, Porter externality and industry TFP growth while there is only unidirectional granger causality between Jacbos externality and industry TFP growth. There is prominent difference in industry TFP growth based on spatial dynamic quantile regression of individual industry for varying time and region. For different quantile, the effect of Marshall externally is decreasing while Jacobos, Porter externality effects are like an inverted U curve. Based on spatial mixed multilevel data, it also investigates the causes of heterogeneous effect of dynamic externalities on industry development in terms of characteristics of industry, province as well as its interactions. All in all, the agglomeration economics for different region of China is pivotal forces to optimize industry structure and fulfill the regional harmonious development strategy which is critically dependent on heterogeneity characterizes and life cycles of individual industry.
Keywords:Dynamic Externality Spatial Panel VAR Industry Heterogeneity
JEL Classification: L6 O18 P25
于殿江 曹晓 林荣强
关键词：保险中介机构 市场结构 业务结构 绩效
Research on the Market Structure and Performance about China's Insurance Intermediaries
Dianjiang Yu Xiao Cao Rongqiang Lin
Abstract: In recent years, China's insurance intermediary market, especially the professional intermediary ,has developed rapidly, but many problems still exist.This paper carries out empirical study on the market structure and performance of China's insurance intermediary institutions based on the data from 2005 to 2011.It also proceeds a study on the relation between the market structure and performance of China's insurance intermediary institutions .The research indicated that the current market structure of China's insurance intermediary institutions are between the competition structure and the less concentrated structure which are too scattered.It has led to the high market performance and the low profit of enterprise.As a result, it seems that the competition is very fierce but the efficiency is not high.Therefore, as for the development of the industry is concerned, seeking the market concentration is the target selection in the future.
Keywords：Insurance Intermediaries Market Structure Business Structure Performance
JEL Classification: G22 L11